The Internet of Things technology originated in the field of media and is the third revolution in the information technology industry. The Internet of Things refers to the connection of any object with the network through information sensing equipment according to the agreed protocol, and the object exchanges and communicates information through the information transmission medium to realize intelligent identification, positioning, tracking, supervision and other functions.
Why do So Many People Focus on Internet of Things Technology? Development of Internet of Things Technology
1. Definition of Internet of Things Technology
The Internet of Things refers to the ubiquitous terminal equipment and facilities, including sensors with "intrinsic intelligence", mobile terminals, industrial systems, numerical control systems, home intelligent facilities, video surveillance systems, etc., and "externally enabled" devices. , such as various assets with RFID attached, individuals and vehicles carrying wireless terminals, etc. "smart objects or animals" or "smart dust", through various wireless and/or wired long-distance and/or short-distance communication networks Realize interconnection, application integration, and cloud computing-based SaaS operations, and adopt appropriate information security assurance mechanisms in the intranet, private network, and/or Internet environment to provide secure, controllable and even personalized real-time online Monitoring, positioning traceability, alarm linkage, dispatch command, plan management, remote control, security prevention, remote maintenance, online upgrade, statistical reports, decision support, leadership desktop (the Cockpit Dashboard displayed in a centralized manner) and other management and service functions to achieve The integration of "management, control and operation" of "efficiency, energy saving, safety and environmental protection" of "everything".
2. Development of Internet of Things technology
The concept of "Internet of Things" was proposed in 1999, and its definition is very simple: connect all items to the Internet through information sensing devices such as radio frequency identification to achieve intelligent identification and management. In other words, the Internet of Things refers to a new technology in which various sensors and the existing Internet are connected to each other. In 2005, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) released the "ITU Internet Report 2005 Internet of Things", which pointed out that the era of ubiquitous "Internet of Things" communication is coming, and all objects in the world, from tires to toothbrushes, from houses to paper towels, can pass the Internet. Actively exchange. Radio frequency identification technology (RFID), sensor technology, nanotechnology, intelligent embedded technology will be more widely used. In March 2008, the world's first international Internet of Things conference "Internet of Things 2008" was held in Zurich, discussing the new concepts and technologies of "Internet of Things" and how to promote the "Internet of Things" to the next stage of development.
Since Premier Wen Jiabao proposed "Perception of China" in August 2009, the Internet of Things has been officially listed as one of the five major emerging strategic industries in the country and written into the "Government Work Report". The Internet of Things in China has received great attention from the whole society. Its level of attention is unmatched in the United States, the European Union, and other countries.
The concept of the Internet of Things is not so much a foreign concept, but it is already a "Made in China" concept, and its coverage has advanced with the times and has exceeded the scope of Professor Ashton in 1999 and the ITU report in 2005, The Internet of Things has been labelled "Chinese".
3. The concept of Internet of Things technology
The Internet of Things is called "sensor network" in China. The Chinese Academy of Sciences started the research on sensor networks as early as 1999, and has established some practical sensor networks. Compared with other countries, my country's technology research and development level is at the forefront of the world, with co-development advantages and significant influence. In the field of world sensor networks, China, Germany, the United States, South Korea and other countries have become one of the leading countries in the formulation of international standards.
On November 27, 2005, at the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) held in Tunisia, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) released the report "ITU Internet Report 2005: Internet of Things", which formally proposed the concept of Internet of Things.
Qian Daqun, CEO of IBM Greater China, announced the latest strategy called "Smarter Planet" at the 2009 IBM Forum. IBM hopes that the "smart planet" strategy will set off another technological revolution after the Internet wave.
The concept of "Smarter Earth" was proposed by IBM in 2008. In early November 2008, at the Council on Foreign Relations held in New York, Palmisano, Chairman and CEO of IBM, published "A Smarter Planet: An Agenda for the Next Generation of Leaders." In 2005, the key to wisdom (Withey) was born in China and in 2007, the concept of "Internet virtual brain" was born.
4. Technology of the Internet of Things
Apply network technology to everything to form the "Internet of Things", such as embedding sensors into the oil network, power grid, road network, water network, buildings, dams, and other objects, and then integrating the "Internet of Things" with the "Internet" Get up and realize the integration of human society and physical system. The supercomputer cluster implements real-time management control over the "integrated network" of people, machines and infrastructure. Manage production and life in a refined and dynamic way, improve resource utilization and productivity, and improve the relationship between man and nature. Simply put, the Internet of Things is the information transfer and control between things and people and things. There are the following key technologies in Internet of Things applications.
4.1 Sensor technology, which is also a key technology in computer applications. Most computers deal with digital signals. Since the advent of computers, sensors have been required to convert analog signals into digital signals that computers can process.
4.2 RFID tag is also a sensor technology. RFID technology is a comprehensive technology that integrates radio frequency technology and embedded technology. RFID has broad application prospects in automatic identification and item logistics management.
4.3 Embedded system technology: It is a complex technology that integrates computer software and hardware, sensor technology, integrated circuit technology, and electronic application technology. After decades of evolution, intelligent terminal products featuring embedded systems can be seen everywhere; from MP3s around people to satellite systems in aerospace. Embedded systems are changing people's lives, promoting industrial production and the development of the defense industry. If the Internet of Things is used as a simple metaphor for the human body, sensors are equivalent to human eyes, nose, skin and other senses, the network is the nervous system used to transmit information, and the embedded system is the human brain, which needs to be classified after receiving information. deal with. This example vividly describes the position and role of sensors and embedded systems in the Internet of Things.
4.4 Intelligent technology: various methods and means used to utilize knowledge in order to effectively achieve a certain intended purpose. By implanting an intelligent system in an object, it can make the object have a certain intelligence, and can actively or passively communicate with the user, which is also one of the key technologies of the Internet of Things.
4.5 Nanotechnology: It is to study the properties and applications of materials with a structure size in the range of 0.1~100 nm, mainly including: nanosystem physics, nanochemistry, nanomaterials, nanobiology, nanoelectronics, nanofabrication, nanomechanics Wait. These seven relatively independent and interpenetrating disciplines and the three research fields of nanomaterials, nanodevices, and nanoscale detection and characterization. The preparation and research of nanomaterials are the basis of the whole nanotechnology, among which, nanophysics and nanochemistry are the theoretical basis of nanotechnology, and nanoelectronics is the most important content of nanotechnology. The physical state of objects can be detected using sensor technology, embedded intelligence in objects can enhance the power of networks by transferring information processing capabilities across network boundaries, and the advantages of nanotechnology mean that increasingly smaller objects in the Internet of Things can Interact and connect. Trends in electronics technology require devices and systems to be smaller, faster, cooler, and smaller, which means faster response times. Cooler means that individual devices consume less power. But smaller is not without limits. Nanotechnology is the final frontier for builders, and its impact will be enormous. Nanoelectronics, including nanoelectronic devices based on quantum effects, optical/electrical properties of nanostructures, characterization of nanoelectronic materials, and atomic manipulation and atomic assembly.
5. Support of Internet of Things technology
5.1 RFID: Electronic tags belong to a category of smart cards. The concept of the Internet of Things was proposed by Professor Ashton, director of the MIT Auto-ID Center in 1999. RFID technology mainly plays an "enable" role in the Internet of Things;
5.2 Sensor network: With the help of various sensors, a network that detects and integrates material phenomena including temperature, humidity, pressure, speed, etc. is also one of the main bases for Premier Wen’s “perceived China” formulation;
5.3 M2M: This term is used more abroad, focusing on the interconnection and centralized control management of terminal equipment. X-Internet, China's three major communication operators are promoting the concept of M2M;
5.4 Integration of Industrialization and Industrialization: Industrial informatization is also one of the main driving forces of the Internet of Things industry, and the automation and control industry is the main force, but there are relatively few voices from this industry.
6. The architecture of Internet of Things technology
The typical architecture of the Internet of Things is divided into three layers, from the bottom to the top are the perception layer, the network layer and the application layer. The core ability of the perception layer to realize the comprehensive perception of the Internet of Things is the part of the Internet of Things that needs breakthroughs in key technologies, standardization, and industrialization. The key lies in having more accurate and comprehensive perception capabilities, and solving low power consumption, miniaturization and low cost issue. The network layer mainly uses the widely covered mobile communication network as the infrastructure, which is the part with the highest degree of standardization, the strongest industrialization ability, and the most mature part of the Internet of Things. The key is to optimize and transform the application characteristics of the Internet of Things to form a system-aware network. The application layer provides rich applications, combines Internet of Things technology with industry informatization needs, and realizes a wide range of intelligent application solutions. The key lies in industry integration, development and utilization of information resources, low-cost and high-quality solutions, and information security. Guarantee and development of effective business models.
The Internet of Things system is mainly composed of operation support system, sensor network system, business application system, wireless communication network system, etc.
Through the sensor network, the required information can be collected. In practice, customers can use the RFID reader and related sensors to collect the data information they need. transmitted to the designated application system. In addition, the sensor can also use ZigBee and Bluetooth and other technologies to achieve the purpose of effective communication with the sensor gateway. Most of the common sensors on the market can detect relevant parameters, including pressure, humidity or temperature. Some specialized, higher-quality sensors can often also detect important water quality parameters, including turbidity, water level, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, phycocyanin, pH, chlorophyll, and more.
Using the sensor gateway can realize the aggregation of information, and at the same time, the communication network technology can be used to enable the information to be transmitted over a long distance and smoothly reach the designated application system. my country's wireless communication networks mainly include 3G, WLAN, LTE, and GPRS, while 4G is still in the pilot stage.
The M2M platform has a certain authentication function, so it can provide customers with necessary terminal management services. At the same time, for different access methods, it can be successfully connected to the M2M platform, so data transmission can be performed more smoothly and conveniently. In addition, the M2M platform also has certain management functions, which are concerned with effective management of user authentication and data routing. As for the BOSS system, it has been widely used in the Internet of Things business because of its strong billing management function.
The business application system mainly provides necessary application services, including smart home service, all-in-one card service, water quality monitoring service, etc. The service objects are not only individual users, but also industrial users or household users. In the Internet of Things system, there are usually multiple communication interfaces, and the communication interfaces are not standardized. In the application of the Internet of Things, the relevant laws and regulations are not perfect, which is not conducive to the safe development of the Internet of Things.
In addition, the government should increase investment in the industry. This investment may not be capital, but more policies for enterprises, especially in the high-end fields of the operating system, development tools, IC design and other industrial chains, from policy to capital Increase investment. In the management, the accountability system for major capital investment is introduced. For projects that cannot be marketed and industrialized for a long time, they will be regularly demonstrated and evaluated, and those that cannot meet the standards will be shut down and transferred or even held accountable.
Reduce blind introduction of projects. In the development of embedded and Internet of Things, the core technology insists on encouraging localization, and intensifies efforts to develop independent research and development products from capital and tax. Put an end to the blind introduction of mid-to-high-end technologies in the industrial chain, especially the situation of repeatedly introducing multiple production lines of the same foreign brand as in other industries.
In the "Twelfth Five-Year" Development Plan for the Internet of Things, QR code is proposed as a core application of the Internet of Things, and the Internet of Things has finally moved from "concept" to "substance". Two-dimensional bar code (2-dimensional bar code) is a black and white graphic that is distributed on a plane (two-dimensional direction) with a certain specific geometric figure according to a certain rule to record data symbol information; in code compilation, it is cleverly used to form a computer. The concept of "0" and "1" bit stream based on internal logic uses several geometric shapes corresponding to binary to represent text and numerical information, which is automatically read by image input devices or photoelectric scanning devices to realize automatic information processing: Two-dimensional barcode/two-dimensional code can express information in both horizontal and vertical directions at the same time, so it can express a large amount of information in a small area.
7. Technical application of Internet of Things technology
In 1999, the concept of the Internet of Things was proposed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In the early days, it refers to the combination of radio frequency identification (Radio Frequency Identification, RFID) technology and equipment, and the combination of the agreed communication protocol and the Internet to achieve intelligent management of item information. The medical Internet of Things is the application of Internet of Things technology in medical treatment, health management, elderly health care and other fields.
The "things" in the medical Internet of Things are all kinds of things related to medical service activities, such as healthy people, sub-healthy people, patients, doctors, nurses, medical equipment, inspection equipment, medicines and so on. The "connection" in the medical Internet of Things, that is, information interaction and connection, exchanges, transmits and shares the relevant information generated by the above "things". The "net" in the medical Internet of Things is to realize the real-time dynamic monitoring of medical and health care services by organically connecting "things" into a "net" to perceive medical service objects, exchange and seamless connection of various data. , continuous tracking management and accurate medical and health decisions.
So what are "feeling", "knowing" and "action"? "Sense" is data collection and information acquisition, for example, continuous monitoring of human body characteristic parameters, surrounding environment information, sensing equipment and personnel conditions of hypertensive patients. "Know" refers specifically to data analysis. For example, after the continuous blood pressure value of a hypertensive patient is measured, the computer will automatically analyze whether his blood pressure is normal. If it is not normal, an alarm signal will be generated to inform the doctor of the situation and adjust the medication. , to be processed, this is the "line".
The sensor products of Wuxi Sensor Network Center have been successfully applied in Shanghai Pudong International Airport and Shanghai World Expo --- the first batch of 15 million yuan of sensor safety protection equipment was successfully sold. The road sensor can analyze and judge based on information such as sound, image, vibration frequency, etc., whether it is a human or a cat, dog and other animals climbing the wall. After a coordinated system is formed by various sensing means, it can prevent people from overrunning, smuggling, terrorist attacks and other attacks. Sexual intrusion is more efficient than the "anti-intrusion products" of the United States and Israel.
The Civil Aviation Administration of the People's Republic of China officially issued a document requesting that all civil airports across the country adopt a domestic sensor network anti-intrusion system.
Pudong Airport directly purchased sensor network products with an amount of more than 40 million yuan, plus accessories totaling 50 million yuan.
If nearly 200 civil airports in the country are equipped with anti-intrusion systems, it will generate a market size of tens of billions.
7.3 Sewage treatment industry
The integrated operation and management platform of urban sewage treatment based on the Internet of Things and cloud computing provides a unified business information management platform for key businesses such as safety management, production operation, water quality testing, equipment management, and daily office of sewage operation enterprises, and provides real-time production data and video monitoring of enterprises. Centralized management, statistical analysis and data mining of data, process design, daily management and other related data provide real-time and rich production and operation information for production and operation managers at different levels, lay a good foundation for auxiliary analysis and decision-making, and standardize management for enterprises , energy saving and consumption reduction, staff reduction and efficiency enhancement and refined management to provide strong technical support, thus forming a comprehensive information management solution for urban sewage treatment.
Wuhan City Sewage Treatment Integrated Operation and Management Platform, relying on cloud computing technology to build and use the Internet to integrate various wide-area heterogeneous computing resources to form an abstract, virtual and dynamically scalable computing resource pool, and then to users through the Internet. Services such as computing power, storage capacity, software platform and application software are provided on demand. The system can monitor the three main links of inlet, production and discharge of sewage treatment enterprises, and conduct information such as water volume, water level, water quality, power consumption, drug consumption, and equipment status of subordinate lifting pump stations and sewage treatment plants through the cloud computing platform. Collect, integrate, analyze and process, establish a mutual stipulation model of each link, analyze the implicit relationship between the consumption of water, electricity and chemicals in the production process and the drainage, production and discharge of treated water to find out the optimal production process management of the sewage treatment plant The scheme realizes real-time control and refined management of the production process of sewage treatment enterprises, and achieves the purpose of standardized management, energy saving, consumption reduction, staff reduction and efficiency improvement.
The Internet of Things fully uses the new generation of IT technology in all walks of life. Then integrate the "Internet of Things" with the existing Internet to realize the integration of human society and physical systems. In this integrated network, there is a super-powerful central computer group that can monitor the personnel in the integrated network. , machines, equipment and infrastructure implement real-time management and control. On this basis, human beings can manage production and life in a more refined and dynamic way, achieve a "smart" state, improve resource utilization and productivity levels, and improve human interaction. relationship between nature.
There is no doubt that if the "Internet of Things" era comes, people's daily life will undergo earth-shaking changes. However, regardless of privacy and radiation issues, it seems unrealistic to implant identification chips on everything. People are moving towards the "Internet of Things" era, but this process may take a long, long time.
For the application of Internet of Things technology, you can go to the website of the Mobile M2M Center to have a look. There are applications in all walks of life. There are also many products.