Body temperature machine is a kind of highest body temperature machine, also known as "medical body temperature machine", and it is called a heat probe in Guangdong, Hong Kong and Taiwan. It records the highest temperature ever measured by the body temperature machine.
1. The principle of the body temperature machine
The working substance of the body temperature machine is mercury. Its glass bubble volume is much larger than the volume of the thin tube above. The mercury in the bubble changes slightly due to the influence of body temperature, and the expansion of the mercury volume makes the length of the mercury column in the tube change significantly. The temperature of the human body varies between 35°C and 42°C, so the scale of the body temperature machine is 35°C to 42°C, and the range of each degree is divided into 10 parts, so the body temperature machine can be accurate to 1/10 degree. To read it, take it out of your armpit or mouth, and the temperature of the glass bulb below it will drop. In order to make his readings still represent the body temperature, a special design must be made, which is the very thin thin tube between the glass bubble and the straight glass tube--shrink.
The neck of the lower part of the body temperature machine near the vacuole is a very narrow curved neck. When measuring body temperature, the mercury in the glass bubble expands as the temperature rises, squeezes through the thin tube to the straight tube, and rises from the neck to the straight tube. At a certain position in the tube, when it reaches thermal equilibrium with body temperature, the mercury column is constant. When the outside temperature is low, the volume of mercury shrinks when it is cold, and it breaks off at the narrow curved neck, so that the mercury in the thin tube cannot return to the glass bubble, and the height reached when the mercury column is in contact with the human body is still maintained, so it is isolated from the body. It still represents the temperature of the human body. After use, the body temperature machine should be "returned to the watch", that is, hold the upper part of the body temperature machine and shake it down vigorously, so that the mercury that has risen into the tube can return to the glass bubble. Other body temperature machines must not be shaken, which is a major difference between body temperature machines and other liquid body temperature machines.
2. Classification of body temperature machines
2.1 Glass body temperature machine
The glass body temperature machine is the most common body temperature machine, it can keep the mercury column that rises with the body temperature in its original position, and it is convenient for the user to observe at any time. Because the structure of glass is relatively dense and the performance of mercury is very stable, glass body temperature machines have the characteristics of accurate indication and high stability, as well as the advantages of low price and no need for external power supply, which are deeply trusted by people, especially medical workers. However, glass body temperature machines have obvious defects, such as easy breakage, possibility of mercury contamination, relatively long measurement time, inconvenient use for acutely ill patients, the elderly, infants, etc., and troublesome readings.
2.2 Electronic body temperature machine
With the development of science and technology, many types of new body temperature machines have appeared. The electronic body temperature machine uses the definite relationship between the physical parameters of certain substances (such as resistance, voltage, current, etc.) and the ambient temperature to display the body temperature in digital form, with clear readings and easy to carry. Its shortcoming is that the accuracy of the indication value is affected by factors such as electronic components and battery power supply conditions, which is not as good as that of glass body temperature machines. The electronic body temperature machine is composed of a temperature sensor, liquid crystal display, button battery, ASIC and other electronic components, which can quickly and accurately measure the body temperature. Compared with the traditional mercury glass body temperature machine, it has the advantages of convenient reading, short measurement time and high measurement accuracy. , can memorize and has the advantage of beep prompting. The electronic body temperature machine does not contain mercury and is harmless to the human body and the surrounding environment. It is especially suitable for use in homes, hospitals and other occasions.
2.3 Multifunctional Infrared body temperature machine
The multi-functional infrared body temperature machine can measure both ear temperature and forehead temperature, dual-function mode, suitable for measurement in different situations:
2.3.1 Ear temperature. body temperature machines are generally used in the armpit, oral cavity, rectum, etc. In practical applications, people generally feel inconvenient or uncomfortable. The ear body temperature machine measures the radiance of the tympanic membrane of the ear to measure the temperature of the human body in a non-contact manner. The principle is shown in Figure 2. Just point the probe at the inner ear canal, press the measurement button, and the measurement data can be obtained in just a few seconds, which is very suitable for acute and severe patients, the elderly, infants, etc. However, in the initial stage of use, users may obtain several different measurement data because they are not familiar with this operation method. Generally speaking, the measured maximum value is the required data. Users will be more satisfied with this kind of body temperature machine after they are familiar with it. Babies under 10 months and users with otitis media are special, because the ears and ear canals of babies under 10 months are small and the ear canals are more curved than adults, so it is more difficult to measure ear temperature. Users with otitis media are not suitable to use ear body temperature machines because there is fluid in the ear canal, which will greatly affect the accuracy of the ear body temperature machine.
2.3.2 Forehead temperature. Both ear temperature and forehead temperature are measured by infrared rays, and the forehead temperature is compared with the spectral temperature corresponding table by comparing the reflection of infrared rays to the forehead surface, so as to obtain an accurate temperature value. There are also many infrared body temperature machines that also have the function of measuring ear temperature and forehead temperature. Forehead temperature collects body temperature on the forehead, which is convenient, simple, and fast. Generally, a few seconds of measurement time is enough, and it is quite accurate. However, it is highly professional, inconvenient to popularize, and not suitable for home users. Moreover, when the room temperature exceeds 25 degrees Celsius and the room temperature is lower than 20 degrees Celsius, the forehead body temperature machine is easily affected by the ambient temperature, including sweating, blowing the air and turning on the air conditioner. The internal collection temperature has a certain influence.
2.4 piece body temperature machine
The ever-evolving new technology has brought a very peculiar body temperature machine, called a sheet body temperature machine or a dot matrix body temperature machine. This kind of body temperature machine is only the size of a business card, 6-7 cm long and 0.5 cm wide, covered with neatly arranged dots with numbers. After the body temperature test, all the dots below a certain value will become darker, while the color of the rest of the dots will not change, and the user can determine the body temperature according to the above changes. This kind of body temperature machine is inexpensive, small in size, easy to carry and store, and has very little pollution. It is especially suitable for medical institutions and can be used for one-time use to avoid cross-infection.
2.5 "Pill type" body temperature machine for oral administration
On March 14, 2019, researchers at Tohoku University in Japan recently invented a "pill-style" oral body temperature machine, which can be excreted with excrement and has been successfully tested on dogs. The body temperature machine for internal use is about 9mm in diameter and 7mm thick. It is only the size of a tablet and contains temperature sensors and micro-integrated circuits. The exterior is made of resin. It does not use button batteries that are harmful to the human body, but uses gastric acid to contact electrodes to generate electricity and store it in a capacitor, which can measure body temperature and send data every 30 minutes.
3. Function of the body temperature machine
The basal body temperature machine is used to measure the basal body temperature of the human body when it just wakes up in the morning. Compared with daily body temperature, basal body temperature is less affected by environmental factors, such as exercise or eating. This is useful for detecting subtle daily changes in body temperature. For example, during ovulation or changes in thyroid function.
The minimum scale marked on the glass fever body temperature machine is 0.2°C; F (0.1°C), but the basic body temperature machine needs an accuracy of at least 0.1°C; F (0.05°C). Therefore, the basic glass body temperature machine is sold separately from the general glass fever body temperature machine. But all electronic body temperature machines have an accuracy of at least 0.1°C; F (0.05°C), so they can be used as basic body temperature machines. Some digital body temperature machines are specifically labeled as 'Basic body temperature machines' and have special features such as large displays, additional memory functions, etc., or beep to guide the correct placement.
4. The measuring position of the body temperature machine
Oral temperature is taken by the patient's ability to correctly and safely place the body temperature machine in the mouth. That is to say, children or people who are unable to resist coughing, weak or vomiting (this is not a problem for fast-response electronic body temperature machines, but it is an important issue in mercury body temperature machines, because mercury body temperature machines body temperature machines take a long time to react to temperature). Another point that should be noted is that when patients drink hot or iced drinks before using oral body temperature machines, other temperature measurement methods must be considered.
Lubricant should be used to help when taking a rectal temperature, especially if it is being taken by another person. While rectal temperatures are the most accurate, it is embarrassing to consider such an act in some countries or cultures. In addition, if the method of inserting the body temperature machine is incorrect, it will make the patient feel uncomfortable or even painful. Babies are usually taken with a rectal temperature, but it is better to have it done by a nurse.
4.3 Inside the ear or on the forehead
In addition, there are ear body temperature machines that use infrared measurement technology to measure the eardrum in the ear and forehead body temperature machines that measure the forehead.
Shake the mercury mercury column of the body temperature machine to below 35°C before use. Put the mercury end of the body temperature machine on the top of the armpit (that is, the deep armpit), and clamp the body temperature machine with the upper arm to avoid dislocation or falling; measure for 5-10 minutes; take out the body temperature machine, after reading the temperature data, wipe the body temperature machine with toilet paper, for the next time or for others to use.
Reading method: Hold the end of the body temperature machine with one hand, that is, the end away from the mercury column, keep your eyes at the same level as the body temperature machine, then slowly turn the body temperature machine, and read the corresponding temperature value when you see a thick mercury column from the front. Be careful not to touch the mercury end of the body temperature machine with your hands when reading, as this will affect the mercury column and cause inaccurate measurements.
4.5.1 If there is sweat under the armpit, wipe it dry before measuring.
4.5.2 If the measurement time is not up and you loosen the armpit, you need to re-measure, and the time should be recalculated.
4.5.3 All factors that affect the actual body temperature (such as drinking boiled water or cold drinks, etc.) should be avoided before measuring the body temperature. Drinking hot drinks, strenuous exercise, emotional excitement and taking a bath need to be measured after 30 minutes.
4.5.4 The maximum temperature value of the glass body temperature machine is 42°C, so the temperature should not exceed 42°C during storage or cleaning, and the body temperature machine should not be washed in hot water or used to measure the temperature of water and other objects.
4.5.5 Glass body temperature machines are fragile and may be contaminated by mercury (mercury).
5. Damage treatment of body temperature machine
Mercury is a silver-white liquid metal with strong cohesion, so it will be in the form of droplets when it is scattered on the ground. If its cohesion is destroyed, it will turn into more small mercury droplets, which will not only make cleaning difficult, but also make it easier Evaporation, if the mercury body temperature machine or mercury sphygmomanometer is damaged, it should be dealt with in the following order:
5.1 Non-related persons (especially children) other than the handling personnel need to stay away from the area or room where the mercury is scattered, keep the place where the mercury is scattered, and be careful not to step on the contaminated area.
5.2 Open windows to ensure long-term ventilation in the room. It is best to turn on exhaust devices such as fans and ventilation fans at the same time to speed up the removal of mercury vapor in the air.
5.3 Turn off the heating appliances and other air-conditioning systems in the house.
5.4 Close the door connected to the polluted room to isolate the polluted room from other rooms in the house and prevent mercury vapor from spreading to other rooms.
5.5 Collect the mercury spilled on the ground with eye droppers, injection tubes, bookmarks, business cards or plastic sheets, wet cotton swabs (such as medical cotton swabs), adhesive tape, etc., and then put the mercury into a small bottle that can be sealed (such as beverage bottle), add a small amount of water to avoid evaporation of the mercury. Never use a vacuum cleaner, or even heat the mercury in any way (as that will make it easier to evaporate). Do not use a broom or any towels to handle or wipe up spills to avoid spreading the mercury. When collecting, try not to touch the mercury with your hands. Some sulfur powder can be sprinkled to reduce the toxicity of mercury that cannot be completely collected on the ground.
5.6 The collected mercury should be stored in an airtight and sturdy container, and the bottle cap should be sealed with tape and marked. Contaminated items (such as clothes, carpets, etc.) during the cleaning process must also be placed in airtight containers.
5.7 Use a flashlight to check whether there are small drops of mercury remaining near the scattered place. If there is still mercury remaining, repeat steps 5-6.
5.8 Temporarily store the collected mercury and related contaminated items in a strong container outside the house, avoiding children and pets, contact the local environmental protection bureau or the cleaning team of the township and municipal office, and discharge it in the way specified by it.
5.9 Continuously (several hours) ventilate the contaminated room from the outside and isolate it from other rooms. If the room is contaminated by mercury, it can be fumigated with iodine and alcohol to ignite, so that iodine and mercury in the air can synthesize mercuric iodide, which is difficult to volatilize. The ground contaminated by mercury can be washed with 10% bleach.
5.10 Do not pour the collected mercury into the sewer, so as not to pollute the ground water source. If mercury seeps into groundwater and people drink water containing heavy metals, it will endanger human health.