Date:2022-09-14 10:57:09

How Important is a Smart Access Control System? System Development of Smart Access Control System

The smart access control system indicates the prohibition authority of the door access door. Security guard at the door.

Smart Access Control System
1. Introduction of Smart Access Control System
The smart access control security management system is a new type of modern security management system, which integrates automatic identification technology of microcomputer and modern security management measures. It involves many new technologies such as electronics, machinery, optics, computer technology, communication technology, and biotechnology. It is an effective measure to solve the security management at the entrance and exit of important departments. Applicable to various confidential departments, such as banks, hotels, computer rooms, armouries, confidential rooms, offices, intelligent communities, factories, etc. In today's rapid development of digital technology and network technology, access control technology has developed rapidly. The access control system has already surpassed the simple doorway and key management, and it has gradually developed into a complete access management system. It plays a huge role in administrative management such as work environment safety and personnel attendance management.
On the basis of this system, adding corresponding auxiliary equipment can carry out elevator control, vehicle entry and exit control, property fire monitoring, security inspection management, catering fee management, etc., and truly realize one-card intelligent management in the area.
The access control system is also known as the access management control system. It is an intelligent management system that manages the entry and exit of personnel. The summary is: manage who can enter and exit those doors at what time, and provide post-event query reports, etc. Common access control systems include: password The general term for access control system, non-contact card access control system, fingerprint iris palm biometric access control system, etc. The access control system has developed rapidly in recent years and is widely used in management control systems.
2. System development of smart access control system
The entrance and exit access control system, as the name suggests, is a system that controls the entrance and exit passages. It is developed on the basis of traditional door locks. The traditional mechanical door lock is just a simple mechanical device. No matter how reasonable the structure design is and how strong the material is, people can always open it by various means. It is very troublesome to manage the keys in the passages with many people (such as offices and hotel rooms). If the keys are lost or the personnel are replaced, the locks and keys must be replaced together. In order to solve these problems, electronic magnetic card locks and electronic password locks have appeared. The emergence of these two types of locks has improved people's management of entry and exit channels to a certain extent, making channel management into the electronic age, but with these two kinds of locks With the continuous application of electronic locks, their own defects are gradually exposed. The problems of magnetic card locks are that the information is easy to copy, the wear between the card and the card reader is large, the failure rate is high, and the safety factor is low. The problem with the combination lock is that the password is easy to leak, and there is no way to check it, and the security factor is very low. At the same time, most of the products in this period used the card reader part (password input) and the control part to be installed outside the door together, so it was easy for people to open the lock outdoors. The access control system in this period was still in the early and immature stage, so the access control system at that time was usually called electronic lock, and it was not widely used.
In recent years, with the development of proximity card technology and biometric identification technology, the access control system has developed by leaps and bounds, and has entered a mature stage. There have been proximity card access control systems, fingerprint access control systems, iris access control systems, and facial recognition access control systems. Various technical systems, such as out-of-order keyboard access control systems, have their own advantages in terms of security, convenience, and ease of management, and the application fields of access control systems are becoming more and more extensive.
3. System functions of the smart access control system
The basic functions realized by a mature access control system:
3.1 Management of channel access rights
The authority to enter and exit the channel is to set who can enter and exit each channel and who cannot enter and exit; the way to enter and exit the channel is to authorize the entry and exit methods of those who can enter and exit the channel. There are three ways to read the card; the time period for entering and leaving the channel is to set the time range within which people who can enter and exit the channel can enter and exit.
3.2 Real-time monitoring function
The system administrator can check the entry and exit of each door area personnel in real time through the computer (with photos displayed), the status of each door area (including door switches, various abnormal state alarms, etc.); it can also be opened in an emergency state. or close all door zones.
3.3 Entry and exit record query function
The system can store all entry and exit records and status records, which can be queried according to different query conditions. Equipped with corresponding attendance software, attendance and access control cards can be realized.
3.4 Abnormal alarm function
Microcomputer alarm or alarm alarm can be realized under abnormal conditions, such as: illegal intrusion, the door is not closed after timeout, etc.
According to the different access control systems of the system, the following special functions can also be realized:
3.4.1 Anti-passback function: that is, the cardholder must enter and exit according to the preset route, otherwise the card swiping in the next channel will be invalid. This function is to prevent the cardholder from following others to enter.
3.5 Anti-tailgating function: that is, the cardholder must close the door just entered before opening the next door. This function is the same as that implemented by anti-passback, but in a different way.
3.6 Fire alarm monitoring linkage function: In the event of a fire alarm, the access control system can automatically open all electronic locks so that people inside can escape at any time. Linkage with monitoring usually means that the monitoring system automatically records the situation when someone swipes the card (valid/invalid), and also records the situation when an alarm occurs in the access control system.
3.7 Network setting management and monitoring function: Most access control systems can only be managed by one computer, while the advanced systems can set, monitor, query and manage the entire system at any authorized location on the network, and can also conduct remote monitoring through the Internet. Set up management monitoring queries.
3.8 Logic door opening function: Simply put, the same door requires several people to swipe the card (or other methods) at the same time to open the electric door lock.
4. System classification of smart access control system
4.1 Classification by identification method:
4.1.1 Password identification
Access permissions are identified by verifying that the entered password is correct.
Such products are divided into two categories: one is the ordinary type, and the other is the out-of-order keyboard type (the numbers on the keyboard are not fixed and change automatically from time to time). Common type:
Advantages: easy to operate, no need to carry cards; low cost.
Disadvantages: Only three sets of passwords can be accommodated at the same time, which is easy to leak and has poor security; no entry and exit records; only one-way control. Out-of-order keyboard type (the numbers on the keyboard are not fixed and change automatically from time to time):
Advantages: easy to operate, no need to carry cards, slightly higher safety factor
Disadvantages: passwords are easily leaked, and the security is not high; no entry and exit records; only one-way control. high cost.
4.1.2 Card Identification
The access authority is identified by card reading or card reading and password, and is divided into: Magnetic card
Advantages: low cost; one person, one card (+ password), general security, can be connected to a microcomputer, and has a door opening record;
Disadvantages: Cards and equipment are worn and have a short life; cards are easy to copy; not easy to control in both directions. Card information is easily lost due to external magnetic fields, making the card invalid. RF Card
Advantages: card, device contactless, easy and safe to open the door; long life, theoretical data at least ten years; high security, can be connected to a computer, with open door records; can realize two-way control. Cards are difficult to duplicate;
Disadvantage: higher cost. Biometrics
Identify entry and exit by inspecting personnel biometrics, etc. There are fingerprint type, iris type, face recognition type.
Advantages: excellent security from an identification point of view; no need to carry cards;
Disadvantage: high cost. The recognition rate is not high, the requirements for the environment are high, and the requirements for users are high (for example, fingerprints should not be scratched, eyes should not be red, swollen and bleeding, no injuries on the face, or how many beards), inconvenient to use (such as iris-type and facial recognition) type, the installation height is fixed, but the height of the user is different). It is worth noting that most people think that the biometric access control system is very safe. In fact, this is a misunderstanding. The security of the access control system is not only the security of the identification method, but also the security of the control system, the security of the software system, and the security of the communication system. The safety of the power system The whole system is a whole. If any aspect is not up to standard, the whole system is not safe. For example, in some fingerprint access control systems, its controller and fingerprint recognition device are integrated, and should be installed outdoors, so that the wires that control the lock switch are exposed outdoors and are easily opened by people.
4.2 Classification by design principle
4.2.1 All-in-one machine (the controller has its own card reader)
The disadvantage of this design is that the controller must be installed outside the door, so part of the control wire must be exposed outside the door, and the insider can easily open the door without a card or password.
4.2.2 The controller and the card reader (identifier) ??are separated
This type of system controller is installed indoors, only the input line of the card reader is exposed outdoors, all other control lines are indoors, and the card reader transmits digital signals, so no one can enter the door without a valid card or password. . Such systems should be the user's first choice.
4.3 Classification by Communication Mode
4.3.1 Non-networked access control, that is, single-machine control access control, is that one machine manages one door, which cannot be controlled by computer software, nor can the records be seen, and it is directly controlled by the controller. It is characterized by low price, simple installation and maintenance, and inability to view records. It is not suitable for places with more than 50 people or frequent flow of people (referring to frequent entry and departure), and it is not suitable for projects with more than 5 doors.
4.3.2 485 network access control is the type of access control that can communicate with the computer, and is directly managed by software, including card and event control. Therefore, it has convenient management, centralized control, can view records, and analyze and process records for other purposes. The characteristics are that the price is relatively high, and the installation and maintenance are increased, but the training is simple, and value-added services such as attendance can be performed. It is suitable for projects with many people, high mobility and many doors.
4.3.3 TCP/IP network access control, also called Ethernet network access control, is also an access control system that can be networked, but the computer and the controller are connected to the network through the network cable. In addition to all the advantages of 485 access control networking, it also has faster speed, simpler installation, larger number of networks, and can be connected across regions or cities. However, there are high prices for equipment and knowledge of computer networks is required. It is suitable for installation in large projects, large numbers of people, speed requirements, and cross-regional projects.
5. System composition of smart access control system
5.1 Access Controller
The core part of the access control system is equivalent to the CPU of the computer, which is responsible for the processing, storage, control and so on of the input and output information of the entire system.
5.2 Card Reader (Identifier)
A device that reads the data (biometric information) in the card.
5.3 Electric lock
The executive part of locking the door in the access control system. The user should choose different locks according to the door material, going out requirements and other needs. There are mainly the following types:
5.3.1 Electromagnetic lock: After the electromagnetic lock is powered off, the door can be opened, which meets the fire protection requirements. And equipped with a variety of mounting brackets for customers to use. This lock is suitable for one-way wooden doors, glass doors, fire doors, and two-way electric doors.
5.3.2 Anode lock: The anode lock is a power-off type that meets fire protection requirements. It is installed on the upper part of the door frame. Different from electromagnetic locks, anode locks are suitable for two-way wooden doors, glass doors and fire doors, and it has a door magnetic detector, which can detect the safety status of the door at any time.
5.3.3 Cathode lock: The general cathode lock is a power-on door type. Suitable for one-way wooden doors. The installation of the cathode lock must be equipped with a UPS power supply. Because the female lock locks the door when the power goes out.
5.4 Cards
The key to open the door. The cardholder's personal photo can be printed on the card, and the door opening card and the badge can be combined into one.
5.5 Other equipment
Exit button: Press the device to open the door, suitable for unlimited exit.
Door sensor: used to detect the safety/switch status of the door, etc.
Power supply: The power supply equipment of the whole system is divided into two types: ordinary and backup type (with battery).
6. Intelligent system application of smart access control system
Intelligent building office building company office, intelligent community access management control, access control in government offices, medical hospital systems, telecommunications base stations and power supply bureau substations... 
6.1 The application of access control in the office of the intelligent building office building company:
The installation of access control on the company gate can effectively prevent foreign salesmen from entering the company and disrupt the office order, and can also effectively prevent outsiders from entering the company to ensure the safety of the company and employees' property. It can display and improve the company's management level and improve the company's Image. It can effectively track whether employees leave their posts without permission. Attendance can be performed through the supporting attendance management software, without the need to purchase clocks, the attendance results are more objective and fair, and the statistical speed is fast and accurate, which can greatly reduce the work intensity of the personnel department. Workload. It can effectively solve the problem that some employees have to change the door keys out of fear after leaving the company. It can easily and flexibly arrange the authority and opening time of any person to each door, just carry a card, without wearing a lot of heavy The key, and the security is more reassuring than the key.
Installing the access control system on the door of the company's leadership office can ensure that the information and documents of the leadership office will not be leaked by others, and can give the leadership a safer and quieter private environment.
Installing an access control system in the development technology department can ensure that the core technical data will not be easily stolen by outsiders. It can prevent employees from other departments from joining the development department to affect the development work.
Installing an access control system on the financial department can ensure the security of property and the security of the company's financial information.
Installing an access control system on the door of the production workshop can effectively prevent idle people from entering the production workshop and avoid potential safety hazards.
6.2 Application of access management control in intelligent community:
Generally, the access control system is installed on the electric gate of the gate, the gate of the gate, the iron door of the unit, and the anti-theft door of the unit. It can effectively prevent the miscellaneous people from entering the community, and effectively carry out closed management of the community. It can be changed that the security of the community relies on memory to determine whether it is a Inaccurate and inaccurate management methods of outsiders. If it is the owner of the community, the new security guard will cause the owner to be disgusted. If the outsider is well dressed, the security may think it is the owner without interrogating it. Bring security risks. The safe and scientific access control system can improve the grade of the property, which is more conducive to the development of the real estate. The owner will also benefit from the scientific and effective access management. The networked access control is conducive to the security guard to monitor the entry and exit of all gates at any time. If there is an accident or case, you can check the entry and exit records to provide evidence afterwards.
It can be used in combination with building intercom system and video intercom system.
It can realize one-card with internal consumption and parking lot management in the community.
6.3 Application of access control in government offices:
It can effectively regulate the office order, prevent illegal personnel from attacking government offices, and protect the personal safety of leaders.
Application of access control in medical hospital system:
It can prevent outsiders from entering the infection area and precision instrument room.
It can prevent someone from bringing bacteria into sterile places such as the operating room because of emotional agitation.
It can prevent illegal groups from attacking hospital management, so as not to damage public property and harm medical workers and hospital leaders because of emotional agitation.
6.4 Application of access control in telecom base station and power supply bureau substation:
Typical base stations and substations of power supply bureaus have the following characteristics: there are many base stations, requiring a large system capacity. The distribution area is very wide, even hundreds of square kilometers, and they have their own network for networking. In some places, they are unattended and require a central dispatching room. Mobile dispatch of on-site staff at any time.
The realization scheme is: using network access control controller, remote management through local area network or Internet
6.5 Application of access control in intelligent elevator control:
Also known as access control elevators, card-swiping elevators, IC card elevators, only authorized users can perform: call elevators, press floors; related intelligent communities have been using related equipment more and more, Shenzhen Doao Technology Intelligent Control System, for elevator control Specially designed control circuit to form a proprietary elevator access control system.

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