What is M2M Communication? The Composition of the Hardware and System of M2M Communication
What is M2M communication? M2M (Machine to Machine) is to effectively control equipment through mobile communication, thereby greatly expanding the boundaries of business or creating more efficient business methods than traditional methods, or creating new services that are completely different from traditional methods.
1. What is M2M communication
"M2M" is the abbreviation of "Machine-to-Machine", which is the transfer of data from one terminal to another terminal, that is, a machine-to-machine dialogue. For example, the access control card we use for work, barcode scanning in supermarkets, and the popular NFC mobile phone payment. M2M communication gave rise to the entire "Internet of Things" in terms of its functionality and potential uses.
M2M communication takes the device communication control as the core, and applies the previously inefficient or even impossible information transmission to business to obtain stronger competitiveness. The business model of M2M communication is currently in the ascendant, mainly including mobile logistics management (M-logisTIcmanagement), mobile payment (M-POS), and mobile monitoring (M-monitoring).
2. Composition of M2M communication
No matter which M2M communication technology or application, several important technical parts will be involved: machine, M2M hardware, communication network, middleware.
The first step in implementing M2M is to get data from machines/devices and send them over the network. There are two basic approaches to enabling machines to "talk": Embed M2M hardware when manufacturing equipment; and retrofit existing machines with communication/networking capabilities.
2.2 M2M communication Hardware
M2M communication hardware is the component that enables machines to communicate and network remotely. There are five current M2M hardware products.
2.2.1 Embedded hardware: embedded in the machine to enable it to have network communication capabilities. Common products are wireless embedded data modules that support GSM/GPRS or CDMA wireless mobile communication networks. Typical products are: Nokia 12 GSM embedded wireless data module; Sony Ericsson's GR 48 and GT 48; Motorola's G18/G20 for GSM, C18 for CDMA; Siemens' TC45, TC35i, MC35i embedded modules for GSM networks.
2.2.2 Assemblable hardware: In the industrial application of M2M communication, manufacturers have a large number of equipment and instruments that do not have M2M communication and networking capabilities, and the reconfigurable hardware is designed to meet the network communication capabilities of these machines. The implementation forms are also different, including I/O Devices (I/O Devices) that collect data from sensors; complete the protocol conversion function and send data to the communication network. Connectivity Terminals (Connectivity Terminals); some M2M hardware also has back control Function. Typical products are: Nokia 30/31 for GSM connection terminal.
2.2.3 Modem: When the embedded module mentioned above transmits data to the mobile communication network, it acts as a modem. If you want to send data through the public telephone network or Ethernet, you need the corresponding
Modem. Typical products are: BT-Series CDMA, GSM wireless data Modem, etc.
2.2.4 Sensors: Sensors can be divided into two types: ordinary sensors and smart sensors. Smart sensor refers to a miniature sensor with sensing ability, computing ability and communication ability. The sensor network (Sensor Network) composed of smart sensors is an important part of M2M technology. A group of intelligent sensors with communication capability form a wireless network in an Ad Hoc manner, and cooperatively sense, collect and process the information of the sensed objects in the geographic area covered by the network, and publish it to the observer. Information can also be transmitted to distant IT systems via GSM network or satellite communication network. Typical products such as Intel.
2.2.5 Identification mark: The identification mark is like the "ID card" of each machine and each commodity, so that the machines can be identified and distinguished from each other. Commonly used technologies such as bar code technology, radio frequency identification card RFID technology (Radio-Frequency Identification) and so on. Signage technology is already widely used in commercial inventory and supply chain management.
3. M2M communication application system composition
3.1 Intelligent machines
"Intelligent", the so-called "speaking" of the machine, so that the machine has the ability of information perception, information processing and wireless processing.
3.2 M2M communication Hardware
The components that enable the machine to have networking capabilities and remote communication, perform information extraction, extract the required information from different devices, and transmit it to the analysis part.
3.3 Communication Network
Including wide area network (wireless mobile communication network, satellite communication network, Internet and public telephone network), local area network (Ethernet, wireless local area network, Bluetooth, wifi), personal area network (Zigbee, sensor network), M2M hardware transmission through the above network The delivery of information to the designated location is at the core of the M2M technical framework.
The M2M gateway completes the conversion between different protocols and builds a bridge between the communication network and the IT system.
The middleware consists of two parts: M2M gateway, data collection/integration part. The gateway is the "translator" in the M2M system, which obtains data from the communication network and transmits the data to the information processing system. The main function is to complete the conversion between different communication protocols. Typical products such as Nokia's M2M gateway.
The data collection/integration component is for turning data into valuable information. The raw data are processed and processed differently, and the results are presented to observers and decision makers who need this information. These middleware include: data analysis and business intelligence components, exception reporting and workflow components, data warehouse and storage components, etc.
As can be seen from the above, M2M communication is a networked application and service centered on the intelligent interaction of machine terminals. With the development of science and technology, more and more devices have the ability of communication and networking, and everything on the network has gradually become a reality.
4. Communication Network
Network technology has completely changed our way of life and survival, and we live in a network society. Today, the emergence of M2M technology has brought new content to the connotation of the network society. In addition to the original people, computers, and IT equipment, hundreds of millions of non-IT machines/equipment are about to join the members of the network society. With the development of M2M technology, the number of these new members and the network traffic of their data exchange will increase rapidly.
Communication networks are at the core of the entire M2M technology framework, including: wide area network (wireless mobile communication network, satellite communication network, Internet, public telephone network), local area network (Ethernet, wireless local area network WLAN, Bluetooth), personal area network (ZigBee, Sensor Networks).
In the communication network in the framework of M2M technology, there are two main players, they are network operators and network integrators. Especially mobile communication network operators play a vital role in promoting the application of M2M technology, and they are the main promoters of M2M technology application. In addition to providing voice services, the development of data services is the focus of the third-generation mobile communication technology. With the evolution of mobile communication technology to 3G, M2M applications will definitely be brought to a new realm. Networks that provide M2M services abroad include AT&T Wireless's M2M communication data network plan, Aeris' MicroBurst wireless data network, etc.
5. Application areas of M2M communication
M2M technology provides a comprehensive solution integrating data collection, transmission, analysis and business management for all walks of life, enabling business processes and industrial processes to become more automated. The main application fields include, transportation field (logistics management, positioning and navigation), electric power field (remote meter reading and load monitoring), agricultural field (greenhouse monitoring, animal traceability), urban management (elevator monitoring, street light control), security field (urban monitoring) and enterprise security), environmental protection (pollution monitoring, soil and water testing), enterprise (production monitoring and equipment management) and home (elderly and child care, intelligent security), etc.
6. Introduction to IoT
The concept of the Internet of Things (The Internet of things) was proposed in 1999. Its definition is very simple: connect all items to the Internet through information sensing devices such as radio frequency identification to achieve intelligent identification and management. The Internet of Things refers to the combination of various information sensing equipment, such as radio frequency identification (RFID) devices, infrared sensors, global positioning systems, laser scanners and other devices through the network (mainly mobile network) and the Internet. The formation of a huge network, with NEC's slogan is "network everything".